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Tile and Terrazzo Glossary

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Abrams law - Rule stating that with given concrete materials and conditions of test the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of the cement in the mixture determines the strength of the concrete, provided the mixture is of a workable consistency. (See also Water cement ratio).

Abrasion Resistance - Ability of a surface to resist being worn away by rubbing and friction

Absorbed Moisture - Moisture that has entered a solid material by absorption and has physical properties not substantially different from ordinary water at the same temperature and pressure. (See also Absorption.)

Absorption - Relationship of the weight of the water absorbed be a ceramic specimen subjected to pre-scribed immersion procedure, to the weight of the dry specimen, expressed in percent.

Accelerator - Substance which, when added to concrete, mortar, or grout, increases the rate of hydration of the hydraulic cement, shortens the time of setting, or increases the rate of hardening of strength development, or both.

Accessories (Tile Accessories) - Ceramic or non-ceramic articles, affixed to or inserted in tile work, as exemplified by towel bars, paper, soap and tumbler holders, /grab bars and the like.

Acid - Chemical substance usually corrosive to common metals (iron, ,aluminum, zinc) and which, in water solution, imparts an acid, sour or tart taste. Acids are generally divided into two classes (a) strong mineral or inorganic acids such as sulfamic, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric or nitric, (b) weak organic or natural acids such as acetic (vinegar), citric (citrus fruit juices), oxalic ,,and fatty acids (oleic, palmitic, stearic, etc.)

Acid and alkali-resistant grout - Grout that resists -/Acidity. effect of prolonged contact with acids and alkalis.

Acidity - General term applying to substances on the acid side of neutral - principally the degree of acidity Acrylic. General class of resinous polymers derived from esters, amides or other acrylic acid derivatives.

Acrylic - General class of resinous polymers derived from esters, amides or other acrylic acid derivatives.

Acrylic Plastics - Plastics based on resins made by the polymerization of acrylic monomers, such as ethyl acrylate and methacrylate.

Additive - Term frequently (but improperly) used as a synonym for addition or admixture.

Adhesion - The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action, or both. (See also Adhesion, mechanical and Adhesion, specific.)

Adhesion, Mechanical - Adhesion between surfaces in which the adhesive holds the parts together by interlocking action. (See also Adhesion, specific.)

Adhesion, Specific - Adhesion between surfaces which are held together by valence forces of the same type as those which give rise to cohesion. (See also Adhesion, mechanical.)

Adhesive - Substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. Note Adhesive is the general term and includes among other cement, glue, mucilage and paste. All of these terms are loosely used interchangeably. Various descriptive adjectives are applied to the term adhesive to indicate certain characteristics as follows: (a) Physical form, that is liquid adhesive, tape adhesive, (b) Chemical type, that is, silicate adhesive, resin adhesive, (c) Materials bonded, that is, paper adhesive, metal-plastic adhesive, can label adhesive, (d) Conditions of use, that is, hot-setting adhesive.

Adhesive Ceramic - Used for bonding tile to a surface. Rubber solvents; and rubber and resin-based emulsions can be used as adhesives.

Adhesive Tile - Organic adhesive used for bonding tile to a surface. Rubber solvents and resin-based and rubber emulsions can be used as adhesives. (TCA)

Adhesive, Pressure-Sensitive - An adhesive made so as to adhere to a surface at room temperature by briefly applied pressure alone.

Adhesive, Solvent - An adhesive having a volatile organic liquid as a vehicle. Note This term excludes water based adhesives.

Admixture - Material other than water, aggregates, and hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and added to the concrete immediately before or during its mixing.

Adobe - Un-burnt brick dried in the sun.

Aggregate - Granular material, such as sand, gravel, crushed stone, and iron blast-furnace slag, used with a cementing medium to form a hydraulic-cement, concrete or mortar. (See also Aggregate, heavyweight and Aggregate, lightweight.)

Aggregate, Heavyweight - Aggregate, of high specific gravity such as barite, magnetite, limonite, iron or steel used to produce heavy concrete. Aggregate, lightweight. Aggregate, of low specific gravity, such as expanded or sintered clay, shale, slate, diatomaceous shale, perlite, vermiculite, or slag; natural pumice, scoria, volcanic cinders, tuff, and diatomite; sintered fly ash or industrial cinders; used to produce lightweight concrete.

Air, Entrained - See Entrained air.

Air-Entraining - Capability of a material or process to develop a system of minute bubbles of air in cement, mortar, or concrete during mixing.

Air-Entrainment - Occlusion of air in the form of minute bubbles (generally smaller than lmm) during the mixing of concrete or mortar. (See also Air entraining and Entrained air.)

Air-Slack - Condition where soft-body clay, after absorbing moisture and being exposed to the atmosphere, will spall a piece of clay and/or glaze.

Alkali - Chemical substance which effectively neutralizes acid material so as to form neutral salts. A base. The opposite of acid. Examples are ammonia and caustic soda.

Alumina porcelain - Vitreous ceramic whiteware for technical application in which alumina (A1203) is the essential crystalline phase. (ASTM C 242).


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